18 DECEMBER 1982

18 DECEMBER 1982

18 DECEMBER 1982

The attack on South Africa’s

Nuclear Power Station at Koeberg

By Richard Henry

18 November 2020

Words:  3 779

INTRODUCTION

Today in South Africa the 16 December is called the Day of Reconciliation.  A day where black and white come together and put aside their past differences.  Why was 16 December chosen for reconciliation?

In December 1838 the Voortrekkers made a covenant with God that if they were to defeat the Zulu army in the coming battle, they would forever celebrate this day in His name. The 470 Voortrekkers (Boers) drew up a laager of wagons on a bend in the Ncome River in Natal.  Between ten and twenty thousand Zulu Impi under the command of Dingane’s Generals -Dambuza and Ndlela ka Sompisi attacked the laager.  With the advantage of muskets overs spears, the white Voortrekkers managed to defeat the Zulu. There was so much blood spilt in the river that it became known as Blood River.

In 1865 the Transvaal Republic declared 16 December as a public holiday and it was known as Dingane’s Day.  The defeat of the Zulu on this day also became a very powerful rallying point for the advancement of Afrikaner culture, identity and nationalism.  In 1952 the name was changed to the Day of the Vow.

After the Boer War / South African War 1899-1902, black people, liberal whites and emerging political parties such as the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Communist Party saw it as a day to protest against white minority rule.  Protest action from the 1920s onwards increased but so did Afrikaner Nationalism.  For this very reason the armed wing of the ANC – Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) sabotaged government structures in Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth and Durban on 16 December 1961, announcing its existence and opening a new phase of resistance.

 

 The symbol of Umkhonto we Sizwe (The spear of the Nation)

SOUTH AFRICA INTO THE NUCLEAR AGE

At the end of the Second World War 1939-1945, the United States and Great Britain asked South Africa to investigate its potential to supply mineable uranium.  This led to the Atomic Energy Board which oversaw uranium production and trade in 1948 and later research and development into nuclear technology.  In 1959 the Nationalist Government approved the building of a nuclear research reactor at Pelindaba near Pretoria. In 1960 with South Africa becoming a republic, Afrikaner Nationalism was at an all-time high, new weapons were purchased and many advanced technology projects were  underway showcasing the abilities of the white afrikaner, who were at last free from the yolk of the British.  In 1965, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd opened South Africa’s first nuclear reactor, the South African Fundamental Atomic Research Installation (SAFARI-1).  A new South African process to enrich uranium was developed and the plant at Velindaba started in 1971 was completed in 1975.   This was also the embryo for research and development into a nuclear weapon, the first one completed in 1978.  By the mid- 1970s South Africa due to her apartheid policies had become internationally isolated.  The ANC and a host of anti-apartheid organisations were ensuring severe sanctions in almost all spheres were imposed on South Africa.  The ANC were starting to get considerably assistance from African and many European countries. Their main support came from the Soviet bloc.

Pelindaba as viewed from the north 2006. Source: Wikipedia

KOEBERG NUCLEAR POWER STATION

Cape Town and the other towns in the Western Cape were far from the coalfields and transportation expensive to move coal to the existing small fossil fuel power stations.  The nuclear research work done showed that two 930 Mega Watt reactors would be sufficient to supply electricity to the region.  A rural site 27 km north of Cape Town at Duynefontein on the Atlantic Coast was chosen and in 1974 approval to construct Koeberg – a commercial power station was given.  A French consortium, Framatome Alsthom Spie Batignolles won the bid and the contract to build two pressurised water reactors was signed on 5 and 6 August 1976 in Johannesburg and Paris, respectively.  Internationally, South Africa was suspected of progressing with the development of a nuclear weapon and anti-nuclear activists, and MK watched developments with interest.

The Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant. Source: http://www.melkbos.com/

 

THE STATUS OF MK IN 1982

Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) was formed on 16 December 1961 with Nelson Mandela as the first commander.

Senior African National Congress / South African Communist Party (SACP) men were sent to Czechoslovakia, East Germany and China for three months military training.  Rank and file recruits were at first trained in Ethiopia, Egypt or Algeria.  Military and political training of nine months at Odessa in the Soviet Union was organised by Oliver Tambo, vice president of the ANC for the better educated recruits.  On completion of training they returned to the MK base at Kongwa, Tanzania. The 16 June 1976 uprising and the consequent brutal reaction of the police security branch caused an unexpected flood of new recruits for MK.  With Angolan Independence on 11 November 1975 and the MPLA in power in Angola, most recruits were at first trained by Cuban and Soviet instructors in Angola.  Later MK instructors such as Job Tabane (aka Cassius Maake) and Aboobaker Ismail (Rashid ) who had attended specialised training in Algeria, Bulgaria, Cuba, East Germany, Hungary and the Soviet Union, were responsible for training new recruits in Angola under the command of Maake.

In 1979 a special 19-member MK Special Operations Unit (SOU) was formed by Oliver Tambo.  The SOU had its own command structure and operations were highly classified with the members reporting directly to Tambo.  Some of the members were Joe Slovo, Montso Mogabudi, Maake and Rashid.   Maake was the Chief or Ordnance responsible for logistics, identification of infiltration route location of dead letter boxes, arms registration and deployments.  While Aboobaker Ismail (Rashid), was appointed the commander of special operations.  In 1987 on the assignation of Maake in Swaziland, Rashid also took over as Chief of Ordnance.   The SOU was to attack strategic targets of high military or economic importance and so by gain maximum impact and publicity.       A new MK military headquarters was established in Lusaka, Zambia, and Joe Slovo was appointed as the chief of staff of MK. The SOU unit eventually consisted of about 60 members, split into smaller units of between two and six men.

Job Tabane (aka Cassius Maake).  Source: sahistory.org.za

ABOOBAKER ISMAIL (RASHID)  

He was born in Johannesburg on 25 December 1954 and lived in Vrededorp, where there was a lot of political activism. He went to an Indian primary school in Vrededorp and high school in Lenasia. His father was politically aware of Communism, Nationalism and the injustices of apartheid. This rubbed off on his son and he became politically conscious at an early age. He noted the poor lives and the conditions Africans lived in when passing through Soweto on his way to high school in Lenasia.  He completed high school in 1971 and went to the University of Durban- Westville where he obtained a BSc with majors in physiology and microbiology in 1974. It is here he became politically involved in the ANC and started to produce and distribute anti-apartheid pamphlets.  After been beaten up by the police and now closely watched, he had to later leave South Africa for military training in exile. He completed an Infantry Commanders course and thereafter a specialised course in military engineering, explosives and sabotage in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in the first half of 1978. He was immediately sent to the MK Funda Camp in Angola as an instructor, specialising in explosives and sabotage.  In 1979 took over as the chief instructor in Angola.  Soon afterwards he was appointed to the SOU and made commander of special operations.  From mid-1980 he was stationed in Swaziland to control MK special operations mostly in the Johannesburg, Pretoria, and Vereeniging areas.  He planned attacks against SASOL, the SADF at Voortrekkerhoogte and along with Rodney Wilkinson the attack on the Nuclear Power Station at Koeberg in December 1982.

Rashid Aboobaker Ismail.  Source:  southafricatoday.net

RODNEY WILKINSON

Rodney Wilkinson was born in 1949, the son of a Second World War artillery officer. From his father he gained a romanticised understanding of warfare and was a little gung-ho.   As with many of the baby boomer generation he was also rebellious to the old style authority.   In the late 1960’s after finishing school he completed his National Service in the South African Defence Force.  Thereafter he enrolled in at Cape Town University for a degree majoring in Building Science and Politics, a course he did not complete.

At university he did however excel at the sport of Fencing and became the South African National Champion in the early 1970’s.  South Africa was evicted from the Olympic Movement in 1966 due to her apartheid policies.  The South African Fencing Association which had always been open to all races managed to remain a member of International Fencing and was supported by the Swiss and Italian fencing federations but was still excluded from competing in World Senior and Junior Championships until 1992.  This made Wilkinson detest the apartheid policies thinking he could have won a medal at the 1972 or 1976 Olympics Games.

Corporal Wilkinson was called up by his citizen force unit for duty in South West African / Angola in 1976.  Towards the end of his enforced military service, he and twelve men stole a Bedford military truck and went AWOL (absent without leave). He dropped the other men off at Windhoek airport and later overturned the Bedford.

The building of Koeberg nuclear power station was underway with over 5 000 engineers, artisans and labourers working on its construction.  Wilkinson, after dropping out of university lived in a commune close to Koeberg. The commune ran out of money and reluctantly Wilkinson took a job as a labourer at the building site.   Later after finding out he had studied building sciences, he was promoted to draughtsman with access to various plans of the site.

In 1979, a Cape Town academic, Renfrew Christie used the excuse of his researching his doctoral thesis into electrical supply in South Africa, to gain access to both the Koeberg and SASOL plants.  This information he later passed on to the ANC.  Christie was caught and imprisoned from 1979 to 1986.  His actions partially reinforced Wilkinson’s own anti-nuclear stance.

Rodney Wilkinson. Source: Daily Maverick

WILKINSON OUT TO ASSIST THE ANC

After working on the site for 18 months, Wilkinson knew the security arrangements and where the security was vulnerable due to the number of people on site.   It was then (about mid 1980) that Wilkinson’s girlfriend – Heather Gray, a speech therapist, convinced him to steal a set of Koeberg building plans and take them to the ANC in Zimbabwe. He got hold of a set of blue prints, resigned from his job and moved to Zimbabwe.  There friends of theirs, Jeremy and Jane Brickhill put them in touch with the ANC.  Jeremey had left Rhodesia in 1974 and joined ZIPRA where he joined the intelligence section responsible for special operation in Rhodesia.  Jeremey contacted Sathyandranath “Mac” Maharaj.  Mac was then a member of the MK s Revolutionary Council (ANC). Maharaj was busy planning attacks on trains carrying on 18 year old white National Servicemen reporting for National Service for the very first time.

 

Mac Maharaj. Source: SA History on Line

Brickhill.  Source: Bulawayo24.com                                                                                                              

At first Maharaj thought Wilkinson could be a spy and have false plans. He then sent the blue prints to his Western and Soviet nuclear experts for verification and confirmation that explosions at Koeberg would not release nuclear reactive material.  How lucky that Wilkinson and his knowledge had fallen into the laps of MK. A planned attack on Koeberg was not in Maharaj’s mandate but fell under a strategic target and was thus for Joe Slovo and Aboobaker Ismail. Then were shown the prints and thought the best person to sabotage Koeberg would be Wilkinson as he had intimate inside knowledge and knew the security arrangements.

At a meeting with Mac, Wilkinson, when asked to undertake the operation himself, was at first surprised but because of his gung-ho tendencies, he agreed.  The operation was code named “Ops Mac”.

PLANNING THE ATTACK AND TESTING KOEBERG’s SECURITY

He first needed to go back to South Africa and try to get back into Koeberg before the reactors were loaded with enriched uranium.  He was quite quickly re-employed at Koeberg, responsible for mapping the numerous pies and valves and was one of about 450 people who had access to the two restricted nuclear reactors.  Aboobaker Ismail who was known by his nom de Guerue – Rashid,  sent one of his trusted men to travel to Zimbabwe to meet with Rodney Wilkinson and set up the first meeting with Rashid in Swaziland.

Wilkinson travelled to Swaziland on the pretence of a ‘dirty weekend’ where he met Rashid who from now on would be his handler.  They met on a monthly basis. They painstakingly worked through the blue prints and identified three possible targets.  One- the reactor heads, which were the heart of the plant. Two – a section of the containment building and three- the concentration of electric cables under the main control room.   The reactor heads were deliberately chosen, as damage to these 110 ton monsters would generate the maximum propaganda for the ANC.     It was decided that Wilkinson would smuggle four Soviet SPM Magnetic Limpet Mines into the plant.  Rashid instructed him the use of the limpet mines.  He practiced his smuggling operation by using bottles of whisky (about the same size of the limpet mine) hidden under the dashboard of his little yellow Renault 5 motor car to get into the site past the security.  Then he stuffed the whisky bottles into his crotch of his overalls to get past the security and guards dogs.  The final hurdle was getting past the tight security at the reactors.

Anybody entering the reactor chambers, which were considered “clean areas”, had to first disrobe and change into special white Personal Protective Equipment suits.  The pipes he had mapped passed through into the reactor chamber via a rubber sealed duct.  He first placed the whisky bottle through this duct, then disrobed, changed into the required PPE and collected the whisky bottle on the other side. By this means he was able to bypass one of the highest security areas in South Africa.

 

Wilkinson and Rashid planned for the attack to take place on the 16 December 1982.  A significant day for Afrikaner Nationalism as well as the formation day of Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) as discussed above.   Rashid also instructed Wilkinson on how to prepare and set the timing device on the Soviet Limpet mine.

 

THE SPM MAGNETIC LIMPET MINE DESCRIBED

The Soviet SPM mine was originally designed for use against ships.  A frogman would place the mine which had strong magnets against the hull of a ship, remove the safety pin and the mine would explode at any set time from 5 minutes to 981 hours.  In South Africa however this Soviet high explosive limpet mine often coupled with thermite incendiary material was the main explosive device used by MK for sabotage from about 1976 until 1994.    It also had an anti-removal function which would explode if the mine was interfered with.

 

 

VZD-1M limpet mine fuse

SPM Limpet mine without fuse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: https://cat-uxo.com/uxo-types/landmines/spm-limpet-mine

The mine is roughly semi-cylindrical and was constructed of aluminium or Bakelite and often painted in a grey colour. The approximate sizes were:  overall length with fuse: 298 mm, Diameter: 115 mm, Mass fused: 3 kg.  There was a fuse well at one end, threaded to accept the VZD-1M or a VZD-20M fuse assembly.  The fuse well was sealed with a plastic plug during transit. Large horseshoe magnets enclosed at each end of the mine, were used to attach it securely to any steel target. The fuse used a lead-shear delay mechanism.  The time delay was set by using different lead strips of varying thickness and colour; either unpainted, red, black, white, green, or brown.  The VZD 1-M fuse was contained in a red cardboard tube along with the colour coded lead tabs and a time/ colour chart.  The use of these limpet mines was not an exact science as the lead tabs were very temperature dependent.  In the South African context the explosion was nearly always before the expected set time.

To set the time delay and prepare the mine for explosion, the fuse cap was removed. The correct colour coded lead tab was inserted under the guillotine wire of the fuse. The unpainted tab gave an approximate time of five minutes while use of the brown tab gave a delay of about 800 hours. After the safety pin was withdrawn from the fuse, the guillotine wire which was pulled downwards by the firing pin spring slowly cut through the inserted lead tab. This freed the firing pin which was stuck into the detonator, exploding the RDZ fuse booster charge and this set off the main charge of TNT. The contained termite set alight during the explosion, burnt at a very high temperature (2 500⁰ C) and was difficult to extinguish.

ATTACK PLANNED FOR 16 DECEMBER 1982

Operation Mac encountered some unforeseen obstacles in the lead up to the planned detonations.  Firstly the Koeberg plant experienced some security scares.  There was also a cable fire started by a short circuit, for which the ANC claimed responsibility.  Security was therefore improved. In November 1982 the firm which hired Wilkinson informed him that he was losing his job at the end of the month.  They later changed their mind and said he could stay on until the end of December.  He told them he had accepted another job offer and would be leaving on Friday 17 December. This gave him a watertight excuse for leaving the plant before the explosions went off.    He as a white male would never be expected as the saboteur.

In his November meeting with Rashid he was told of the location of a dead letter box in the little Karoo where Wilkinson could find the four limpet mines for the attack. The date for the pick-up was also set.

It is probable that the following method was used to deliver the limpet mines to the dead letter box (DLB).  First they would be issued by the head of ordnance in Lusaka, Cassius Maake along with separate fuses.  Maake would also identify the location of the DLB to be used.  They would go via Maputo to Swaziland. Here they would be smuggled in a false compartment of a 65 litre Toyota Cressida fuel tank across the border into South Africa.  The Cressida petrol tank could be easily removed within 10 minutes and the mines transferred to a car driven by other MK member, who would deliver them at the correct time to the designated DLB.

Wilkinson and Gray travelled to their little yellow Renault 5 to the DLB where they dug up the mines and transferred them to empty 5 litre boxed wine containers.  They hid the mines and fuses in their garden in suburban Claremont home in Cape Town.

Limpet mines, F1 and RGD 5 hand grenades, Stechkin automatic  pistols,

magazines and limpet mine fuses in read cardboard tubes found in a MK arms cache in Taung.

Source: Taung Daily News.

In mid-December he dug up the mines one by one and smuggled them past the security checks just as he had practiced with his whiskey bottles.  He placed two mines among the mass of electrical cables under the main control panel.  He smuggled the last two limpet mines into the plant.  Although the explosions were supposed to be set for 16 December 1982, he was still to report for work on his last day Friday 17 December.  On this day he took the last two fused limpet mines and placed them on the steel supports of the two steel reactors. The lead tabs used in the fuses were for a 24 hour setting.  It is not known if Wilkinson set the fuses himself or they were pre-set for him.  He probably only had to screw the fuse into the fuse well, attached the limpet mine with the powerful magnets to the target and then pull out the safety pins.  The 24 hour delay would ensure that the explosions were detonated on Saturday 18 December when the plant was empty, thereby minimising the risk of injury to any workers.

After setting the last limpet mine he had to go for his farewell party arranged for him by his fellow technicians and engineers.  He hoped that the lead tabs in the limpet mines would not cause a premature detonation and kill him.

FLIGHT INTO OBSCURITY AND EFFECTS OF HIS ACTIONS

That afternoon he caught a commercial flight from Cape Town to Jan Smuts’ airport in Johannesburg. A relative of his drove him to the Swaziland border where he crossed on a bicycle.

The four limpet mines exploded over a 24 hour period.  The first mine was detonated at 03:23, the second at 08:40 and the third at 11:24 all on Saturday 18 December 1982.  The last limpet mine only detonated at 02:53 on 19 December.  The ANC proudly claimed credit for the attack which had resulted in no injuries.  The South African authorities were flabbergasted that the security at the plant was breeched.  Damage to the plant was estimated to be 500 million rand.  It also set back the final commissioning of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station by 18 months.  The attack was a great propaganda feat for the ANC and MK.  It showed that MK saboteurs were capable of successfully attacking the heart of Afrikaner nationalism.  Wilkinson was never expected as a suspect.

Rashid arranged for him to travel to Maputo where he met Oliver Tambo and was reunited with his girlfriend.  A little while later he flew London and went into exile. He married Heather in Woodbridge, Suffolk and they continued to work for the ANC in London. They returned to South Africa after the release of Nelson Mandela and Wilkinson worked for the ANC government. In 1999 he was granted amnesty by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and it was only then that his full story became known.

SOURCES:  

Books:

Gwen, JI H                           Brassey’s Infantry Weapons of the World              Brassey, London 1979

Morris & Combrink          SA Bomb Summary: Use of Explosives Devices in Sabotage & terrorism in                                                South Africa 1981-1986 terrorism research, Cape Town, 1986.

Internet:

https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/december-16-reflection-changing-south-african-heritage

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koeberg_Nuclear_Power_Station#:~:text=Construction%20of%20the%20power%20station,it%20was%20still%20under%20construction.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-africa.aspx

https://publicintegrity.org/national-security/south-african-who-attacked-a-nuclear-plant-is-a-hero-to-his-government-and-fellow-citizens/

https://mg.co.za/article/1995-12-15-how-we-blew-up-koeberg-and-escaped-on-a-bicycle/

https://samilhistory.com/2018/05/01/the-incidental-terrorist/

http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2015000200003

https://mg.co.za/article/1998-05-08-rasheed-the-clean-bomber/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sasol#:~:text=Sasol%20Limited%20is%20an%20integrated,1900s%20(see%20coal%20liquefaction).

https://www.csmonitor.com/1980/0603/060327.html

https://cat-uxo.com/uxo-types/landmines/spm-limpet-mine

https://omalley.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv03445/04lv03996/05lv04012/06lv04014.htm

https://southafricatoday.net/south-africa-news/mastermind-of-church-street-bombing-rashid-aboobaker-ismail/

https://bulawayo24.com/index-id-news-sc-national-byo-159614.html

https://taungdailynews.wordpress.com/2012/10/01/explosive-items-and-fire-arm-discovered/

Checked:  Director

The Walther P38 pistol

The Walther P38 pistol

A genuine shooter

Jan van den Bos, curator, military collection, DITSONG: National Museum of Cultural History

The Play station and Xbox game series Call of Duty: Big Red One is based on true battles between the 1st American Infantry Division and the Germans during World War II. The background scenery takes place in Kasserine Pass, North Africa, the Battle of Gela in Sicily and Eilendorf, Germany during 1943. The game strategy is to advance as quickly as possible and get rid of as many enemies as possible. A player receives rewards in the form of improved weaponry as the game progresses.

One of the more advanced semi-automatic pistols on the German list is the Walther P38. Young players are familiar with the specifications of the maximum and effective firing range of this weapon. The knowledge they gain about the Walther will determine what may become one of their favourite pistols in future. Possibly a Walther, who knows?

The real soldier of the time valued the P38 highly because of its accuracy and ability to stay on target.

The Walther P38 (P: abbreviation for Pistol)

German troops issued with the 9mm Walther P38 semi-automatic pistol during World War II found its decent crisp trigger action, comfortable grip, advance sighting device and balanced weight an enhancement for accuracy and reliability. Without any doubt the Walther P38 became one of the favourite pistols manufactured in Germany.

The Walther P38

The P38 was one of the first locked-breech pistols available at the time. When firing the pistol, both the barrel and the slide recoil for a short distance together. The upper slide or top cover moves over the hammer head and cock it. The recoil spring lifts the cartridge from the magazine into the breechblock or rear barrel. The slide releases and forces the cartridge forward. The locked-breech mechanism prevents the next round from entering the breechblock prematurely. The breech first opens once the existing bullet has left the barrel and the high pressure in the barrel has decreased. The locked-breech in other words slows down the reloading process and prevents the risk of damaging the weapon or injuring the shooter while the pressure in the barrel is still high. An additional safety feature of the P38 is the metal rod indicator extended out of the top rear end of the slide when a round is in the chamber. (See illustration above). The pistol is not only known for its safety features but the detonating mechanism is capable of performing a single or a double action firing rate. The aligned barrel and slide locking block design provides good accuracy and stability that increases the reliability of the weapon even more.

The Walther P38 became increasingly popular. The Wehrmacht (German Army) adopted the weapon as one of the standard service pistols during World War II.  The existing and well-known Walther firearm plant (Waffenfabrik) in Zella-Mehlis, Thuringia, Germany could not keep up with the demand in production.  American forces too captured the plant during World War II and when it was partly air bomb, several other German firearm plants continued with the production of the P38.

Manufacturers

The Walther plant at Zella-Mehlis, Germany has a long history. Carl Wilhelm Freund Walther (1858-1915), a trained gunsmith, started his rifle-making and repair business at his parents’ home in Zella-Mehlis at the age of 28. Firearm production increased slowly, but with the establishment of a new small factory in 1903, Walther became a well-known name within the firearm industry.  After Carl’s retirement, his eldest son, Fritz (1889-1966) took over the business. With the help of a business partner, Fritz designed and developed the P38.

Fritz Walther (1889-1966) who took over his father’s business and designed                      the Walther P38

During World War II when firearm production at Zella-Mehlis came to a standstill, the Mauser Company in Oberndorf, Salzburg and Spreewerk in Spandau, Berlin continued with the production of the P38. Close to the end of World War II, Soviet forces who occupied the Zella-Mehlis region, dismantled the machinery at the Walther plant and moved the entire content to the Soviet Union. When Fritz finally raised enough money, he established a new Walther firearm plant in Ulm, West Germany.

Identification marks

The first Walther P.38s manufactured at the Zella-Mehlis plant were initially marked with the Walther logo on the side of the pistol. The name Walther was replaced by a code 480 in 1940 to safeguard the firearm plant against potential attacks from Allied forces. After two months the letters ac replaced the 480 code. The first P.38 prototypes were marked by a 0 prefix followed by the rest of the number.

Markings such as the Walther was replaced by a code to protect the identity                     of a manufacturer

 

The Mauser Company, the co-manufacturer of the P38, used the letters byf and svw as identification codes. Spreewerk, the third manufacturer used the code cyq. These three companies produced approximately 1.2 million P38 pistols. After the war many countries such as Austria, Norway and the Republic of South Africa re-used the pistols.

HG 42402: The P38 pistol in the collection of DITSONG: National Museum of                     Cultural History

The P.38 pistol is marked ac 41 and has a four-digit serial number. It was manufactured in 1941 by Walther at its plant in Zella-Mehlis, Germany. Neither the donor nor the owner of the weapon is known.

 

Sources:

Smith, W.H.B. Small arms of the World: A basic Manual of small arms. Galahad Books, 1973

Walter, J. The handgun story. Frontline Books, 2008.

16-inch Armour Piercing Shot

16-inch Armour Piercing Shot

16-inch Armour Piercing Shot
On Display at DITSONG: National Museum of Military History
From HMS Nelson    

Date 1941

By Richard Henry

 

INTRODUCTION

The British Admiralty ordered two new Battleships for the Royal Navy in December 1922.  These were called the Nelson Class, named after Admiral Horatio Nelson. Their mass and size was restricted by the Washington Naval Treaty to a maximum dry tonnage of 35 000 tons and 16-inch guns.  They were sometimes referred to as the “Cherry Tree” class as they had been cut down by Washington. The two ships were christened HMS Nelson and Rodney.

The keels were laid down on 28 December 1922.  The firm Armstrong Whitworth & Co built the Nelson at the High Walker shipyard on the River Tyne, northern England.  She was launched in September 1925 and commissioned in August 1927. The Rodney was built by Cammel Laird at the Birkenhead shipyard on the River Mersey, launched in December 1925 and commissioned in December 1927.

Not to exceed the maximum tonnage they had a unique layout with the nine 16-inch guns in three turrets all forward of the bridge.  Armour plating was also reduced but in places over the main magazine, control positions, and waterline belt it had sloped armour up to 360 mm thick. The deck had a single plate of 159 mm thick to protect against plunging shells and aircraft bombs.  Non vulnerable areas had minimal armour plating.

Both battleships served extensively in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indian oceans during the Second Word War. The Rodney was made famous by her role in the sinking of the German battleship Bismarck in May 1941

THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONNECTION

On 25 March 1941, the Battleships HMS Nelson and Revenge as well as the light cruisers Edinburgh and Cairo and sixteen destroyers escorted twenty troopships with 528 000 troops from Britain to the Middle East.

On Wednesday 16 April 1941 at 8:45 HMS Nelson tied up alongside the Duncan Dock in Cape Town. The next day she was visited by General JC Smuts.  It is thought that as a gift the Nelson donated one of her 16-inch projectiles. On 19 April at 8:00 HMS Nelson sailed from Cape Town for Durban.  At 14:00 off Dyer Island she fired her main guns.

 

On Tuesday 22 April at 10:30 Nelson arrived off Durban; at 13:30 she entered the dry dock in Durban for her annual maintenance.  The maintenance was complete by 3 May 1941 and the Nelson left the Durban dry dock and berthed in Durban.  On 10 May at 14:30 the Nelson along with the aircraft carrier Eagle with Swordfish aircraft from 813 and 824 squadrons on board as well as the heavy cruiser Hawkins sailed from Durban. As the three ships passed through the harbour entrance large crowds had gathered on the breakwaters to wave goodbye. ‘The Lady in White’ Perla Gibson, sang in her soprano voice which was amplified by a ship’s megaphone while the three ships returned to Cape Town arriving on 12 May at 19:00.  The next day at 8:00 the Nelson and Eagle sailed from Cape Town for St Helena in search of the German commercial raider Atlantis.

 

FOR THE WAR MUSEUM

 

In mid-1942 the War Museum had collected a few exhibits, but a letter dated 17 March 1943 written by the Officer Commanding the South African War Museum, Captain Bellwood to Commander Scheepers (Navy) at Defence Headquarters states “As far back as May 29, 1942, I have been trying to obtain historic and interesting objects which will help the SA War Museum show the part played by the South African Naval Service.”   Bellwood also states that the SA War Museum has no naval exhibits and requests help in obtaining naval trophies, souvenirs and equipment.

 

This seems to suggest that by 29 May 1942, the SA Naval Service had a selection of interesting naval equipment in their possession, most probably at Simon’s Town where they were being used for demonstration and instruction purposes.

 

The Royal Navy and South African Naval Service exhibited material at the Liberty Cavalcade, Green Point Common, Cape Town, from 25 March to 1 April 1944. After the Cavalcade in Cape Town, the UDF exhibition, as well as the naval exhibition travelled by train to Bloemfontein, Kimberley and then Durban. The last cavalcade, the “Speed for Victory Fair”, was held at the Witwatersrand Agricultural Showgrounds in Milner Park, Johannesburg, from 25 November to 2 December 1944. After this cavalcade, many of the exhibits became part of the fledging South African War Museum holdings. The 16-inch projectile is listed on the inventory of exhibits compiled by Captain WA Bellwood, Officer Commanding of the War Museum, in July 1945.  This list of objects was used during the handing over of the Museum to Bellwood’s successor, Maj JA de Wet.

 

ARMAMENT

The main armament on the Nelson and Rodney was nine Breech Loading 16-inch Mark 1 guns.  There were three guns in each of the three gun turrets. These were the only Royal Navy battleships with this configuration. The guns were of 45 calibres, meaning 45 times the bore of 16 inches, which equates to a length of 60 foot (18 m).

A total of 29 of these guns were manufactured by Armstrong Whitworth & Company at Elswick, on Tyne, Vickers at Barrow-in- Furness, William Beadmore & Company at Dalmuir and the Royal Gun Factory at Woolwich.  Eighteen of the guns were mounted on the battleships while the other 11 were repaired. The high muzzle velocity of the projectile wore out the barrels quite quickly and effected accuracy, leading to a large dispersion pattern.  After firing between 200-250 projectiles they needed re-rifling.

 

SPECIFICATIONS OF BL 16-INCH MK 1 GUN

Calibre:                                                 16-inches (406 mm)

Mass:                                                    108 tons

Length:                                                18.85 m

Maximum elevation:                        40 degrees

Rate of fire:                                        1 round per min

Muzzle velocity:                               788 m/s

Effective firing range:                     32 000 m at a 32-degree elevation

Maximum firing range:                  36 375 m

 

AMMUNITION

By the 1850s it was found that high explosive shells had little effect on the thick armour plating of the enemy ships.  High explosive shells only caused some damage to light infrastructure.

A new projectile or solid shot, able to penetrate the thick armour of the enemy ship was required. If the side armour of a ship could be penetrated it could lead to the ship taking in water and after multiple strikes, it could be sunk. The Rodney fired 380 projectiles at the Bismarck before it sank.

Armour piercing projectiles were at first forged and the nose specially quenched with water to make it extremely hard.  The problem now was that the hard projectile could shatter on impact.

A softer penetrating nose cap transferred energy from the tip of the shell to the sides of the projectile, thereby helping to reduce shattering.  The penetrating cap also deformed on contact which aided the “sticking “to the target armour plate on contact, which reduced the projectile from bouncing off in glancing shots when striking at an oblique angle.

During the Second World War (1939-1945), armour piercing projectiles / shot used alloyed steels containing a mixture of nickel, chromium and molybdenum.

Later amour piercing projectiles were fitted with a small bursting charge which would explode once the projectile or shot had penetrated the enemy ship.

 

THE ARMOUR PIERCING SHOT MARK 1B ON DISPLAY

This shot, with a penetrating cap, had a mass of 929 kg.  Inside the projectile was 23.2 kg of TNT, which would explode after penetration.

The shot did not have a standard brass cartridge case contacting the propelling explosives. This would be too large to handle and manoeuvre and rather expensive. Rather the projectile was loaded into breech, rammed into the barrel and six charge bags, each with a mass of 37.4 kg and containing SC 280 explosives as the propellant. This total of 224 kg of propelling charge when fired built up a pressure of about 3 200 kg per cm squared in the gun breech. This pressure ensured that this 929 kg shot left the 18 m barrel as a muzzle velocity of about 788 m/s (depending on how worn the barrel was).

The trajectory of the shot and the range it would fly was dependent on the set elevation of the gun.  The higher the elevation (up to 40 degrees), the greater the range.  The effect and armour penetration of the shot, however, was dependent on the angle of the projectile strike and the strike velocity. See table below:

 

Elevation                             Range                   Side Armour Penetration             Deck Armour Penetration

12.5 degrees                      18 290 m             310 mm                                               72 mm

23.7 degrees                      27 420 m             224 mm                                               130 mm

38 degrees                          32 000 m             193 mm                                               165 mm

The longer the range, the longer the time of flight of the projectile. To hit a ship traveling at say 20 knots (37km/h) the gunnery officer had aim ahead of the target, how much was dependent on the range and projectile flight time. It had to be calculated how far the enemy ship would travel during the fight time. A few examples are given below.

Range                                                   Flight time                                          Strike velocity

18 290 m                                             31.4 sec                                                490 m/s

27 420 m                                             54.7 sec                                                436 m/s

32 000 m                                             76 sec                                                   420 m/s


A 15-inch Capped Ballistic Capped Armour Piercing Shell with explosive charge (in darker yellow)

THE EFFORT REQUIRED IN LOADING THE PROJECTILE

When the Nelson or Rodney prepared for sea, a total of 900 armour piercing projectiles would be loaded into the hull, 100 projectiles for each gun. These were stored in an upright position on a rotating projectile handling platform below each gun turret. That is 300 projectiles per gun turret.

A further 5 400 charge bags, each weighing 37.4 kg were also loaded.  Below each gun turret, towards the bottom of the ship is the magazine. In the magazine, the 1 800 charge bags for each gun turret were stored in separate racks. Each section of rack was sealed off the other to reduce the risk and damage from a fire or explosion.

Of the full crew compliment of 1 361 men, a total of three officers and 294 men were involved in preparing and firing the nine guns.  One officer and 98 men per gun turret of three guns were required.

The majority of the 98 men required to service each gun turret worked either in the charge bag magazine and/or the projectile handling platform.

Six charge bags (37.4 kg each) were taken from the magazine and loaded into a charge bag chute which hoisted the bags up to the gun room inside the gun turret.

An operator electrically turned the outer projectile handling platform or carousel. This brought one of the upright standing projectiles closer to the projectile pusher hoist. The task was to now move the projectile from the outer ring to the inner ring. A cable was placed around the projectile and wrapped around a powered capstan. The capstan turned and at the same time pulled the projectile onto the inner turnstile and into position for the pusher hoist.

In the gun turret the gun was lowered to a five degree elevation and the breech opened.  The projectile arrived in the gun room in an upright position nose first. It stopped when it got to the cradle behind the gun. The projectile in the cradle was then hydraulically lowered to line up with the breech of the gun. A hydraulic rammer operator rammed the projectile into the breech. The rammer was then withdrawn.

The gun was now ready to receive the six charge bags. Three bags were rolled from the chute in the gun room and placed in the cradle; another three bags were removed and loaded into the cradle.  The six charge bags were rammed slowly into the breech. The breech was closed and the gun rose to the required elevation. The gunnery officer then checked all systems and the gun room officer confirmed them. The gun was fired, sending a 929 kg projectile on its way to the target. Each gun in the three-gun turret was elevated, loaded and fired separately. The same procedure was repeated for each of the nine guns.

Loading a 16–inch projectile into the turret

handling platform.

 

As the projectile loading in the handling rooms required 50 seconds, the maximum sustained rate of fire was one round per gun and was theoretically every 50 seconds. The actual firing rate was more likely to be every 65 seconds.

CONCLUSION

The visit of HMS Nelson to Cape Town in April 1941 and the meeting with Prime Minister, General JC Smuts was instrumental in the fledging War Museum in Johannesburg, eventually obtaining one of these 16-inch projectiles.

 

References:

Archival Documents:

Bellwood, WA                    Inventory of Exhibits War Museum, dated 16 July 1945

Bellwood, WA                    South African War Museum Organisation files 1-7

 

Internet:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armor-piercing_shell

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BL_16-inch_Mk_I_naval_gun

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson-class_battleship

http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_16-45_mk1.php#Ammunition

www.youtube.com/watch?v=0OmOQs0ziSU

http://rapidttp.co.za/waratsea/nelson.html  article by Marsh, J, HMS Battleship Nelson

http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-01BB-Nelson.htm

 

THE AREA BOMBING OF GERMANY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

THE AREA BOMBING OF GERMANY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BOMB DAMAGE BY WAR ARTIST GEOFFREY LONG

Allan Sinclair
DITSONG: National Museum of Military History

Introduction

Area bombing is an instrument of total war as its main target is innocent civilians. During the Second World War (1939 – 1945) 7,5 million German people were left homeless as a result of the Royal Air Force’s indiscriminate area bombing campaign. In the process 305 000 civilians were killed and 780 000 wounded. By the Spring of 1945 there were hardly any targets left to attack as the vast majority of German cities had been reduced to rubble.[1]   It has even been suggested that the bombing offensive was so powerful that the resultant shockwaves breeched and weakened the outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. Consequently, the bombing also changed weather patterns and placed species of birds and insects on the endangered list.[2]

In 1945 South African war artist Geoffrey Long travelled to Europe to accompany the British force into Germany. In the process he completed a number of paintings in Berlin and other devastated cities which were, due to their great topical value, immediately placed on exhibition after his return to London.[3] This article looks at six of these works completed in 1945.

Geoffrey Long and the War Programme

The official Military Art Collection, which depicts South Africa’s involvement in the Second World War, has been under the curatorship of the DITSONG: National Museum of Military History since 1953.

Soon after South Africa’s entry into the war official war artists were appointed to travel to the battlefronts where the Union Defence Forces would be fighting. Geoffrey Long became a war artist in 1941 and his service initially took him to North Africa and Italy. He was not a war illustrator who spent time in the safety of the base painting portraits of generals and other personalities.  He also did not paint action scenes from photographs or listened to the descriptions of those who had taken part in battle.  He was daring and courageous, ready and willing to accompany the most dangerous missions to fulfil his role as an illustrator of the conflict.

Long’s productivity was noteworthy and he completed over 230 official works, the bulk of which became part of the official South African wart art collection. His style can be described as graphic and inclined towards expressionism. He worked in various mediums, but most of his work was completed in the form of drawings. These are more important for their subject matter rather than their artistic quality. [4]

The Area Bombing of German Cities

The six paintings that are the subject of this article are illustrations of Dortmund, Kiel, Essen, Bochum, Cologne and Berlin. They are selected examples of the many German cities completely destroyed as a result of the area bombing policy carried out by Bomber Command.

G Long: Bochum (Acq 15390)

A number of reasons led to the formulation of such a policy. At the outset of the war, Bomber Command was given stringent instructions to avoid hitting targets that were neither military nor industrial and could lead to civilian casualties.  There were also fears of pre-war estimates of the power of the German Luftwaffe. The initial policy was to stick to precision bombing of targets located away from the German cities.[5]

The first raids carried out in daylight were a disaster and the bombers were exposed to German fighter aircraft and anti-aircraft fire. As a result Bomber Command suffered major casualties to both its aircraft and personnel.

There was a belief that the bombing offensive would have to be cancelled altogether. However, after the British Expeditionary Force had been evacuated from Dunkirk in May 1940, the Royal Air Force (RAF) became the only arm of service with a capacity to take the war to the enemy. According to Anthony Beever, the oppressed inhabitants of occupied Europe were crying out for retaliation against Germany. There was also strong opinion in Britain that the Germans deserved the same treatment that the Luftwaffe had meted out on the British population during the Blitz.[6]


G Long: Dortmund (DNMMH Acq 15095)

Accordingly, Bomber Command turned to night time raids. Patrick Bishop believes that the strategy of area bombing of cities was agreed to almost as a necessity. The lack of visibility, poor navigational aids and inaccurate bombsights rendered precision bombing of military and industrial targets at night useless.  Area bombing was the only way to continue the fight into Germany.  Widely dispersed attacks on residential areas would break civilian morale and the destruction of housing would leave workers homeless and impact heavily on German war-time industry. [7]


G Long: Kiel (DNMMH Acq 15379)

The area offensive began in earnest in March 1942 when 230 aircraft bombed Lubeck. The mission was primarily used as an experiment to see whether the bombing of timber framed buildings could produce a massive fire large enough to be used as an aiming point for more waves of bombers. The results spoke for themselves as 80% of Lubeck’s timber framed structures were destroyed in the raid.[8]

This mission became a pattern for Bomber Command raids for the rest of the war. A list of 43 German cities consisting of more than 100 000 inhabitants was drawn up by the British Chiefs of Staff and they were bombed one by one. The targets included Berlin, Essen, Dusseldorf, Cologne, Hamburg and the Ruhr industrial area. The method of attack was indiscriminate and terrifying for those on the ground. Once incendiary bombs had been dropped in large quantities they were followed by deadly high explosive bombs which precluded firefighters and other emergency management services from carrying out both fire suppressant and emergency medical duties.[9]


G Long: Essen (DNMMH Acq 15392)

Examples of particular bombing operations include Operation Millennium, a raid of 1 047 aircraft on Cologne on 30 May 1942. It is recorded that 868 bombers eventually dropped 1 455 tons of bombs on the city destroying 3 000 buildings in the process. Operation Gomorrah, the raid on Hamburg on 24 July 1943, saw 43 000 people lose their lives in the resultant firestorm. A further operation, the Battle of the Ruhr, formed part of a bombing campaign in 1943 and 1944. The cities of Essen, Dortmund and Bochum were regular targets throughout this period. One particular raid on Essen took place on 5 March 1944 and, even though the Krupp factory located in the city did suffer heavy damage, more than 160 acres of Essen’s residential areas were also destroyed in the process.[10]

While the RAF maintained its strategy of area bombing, the United States Army Air Force was determined to prove its own strategy. After the United States entered the war in December 1941, the US 8th Air Force was despatched to the United Kingdom to take part in the bombing campaign. The British had hoped that it would join Bomber Command in a massive area bombing operation. US planners, however, were of the firm belief that their heavy bombers which relied on speed, massed formations, high altitude and a large quantity of defensive weapons, could succeed with precision daylight raids on specific military and industrial targets.[11]


G Long: Cologne (DNMMH Acq 15393)

A mutual agreement was then reached in which the US bombers would carry out day time bombing raids on specific targets while the British would continue with their night time area bombing of the civilian population. Despite this agreement, the 8th Air Force did combine with Bomber Command during Operation Gomorrah and later raids on civilian targets.[12]

Possibly the most infamous bombing raid of the war took place on Dresden in eastern Germany on 13 February 1945. The raid formed part of Operation Thunderclap, the systematic attack on desperate German refugees moving west ahead of the advancing Soviet forces. The operation was adjusted to bomb major German cities in the east. It was believed that such attacks would place an even greater strain on the German defence of the Eastern Front.

A first wave of 244 Avro Lancaster bombers of the RAF delivered all their incendiary bombs over a period of fifteen minutes. The result was an immediate fire storm that sucked in all the oxygen. A few hours later a second wave of Lancasters arrived and, with fires raging heavily in the city, these bombers had no problem finding their targets. As day broke on the morning of 14 February, US Boeing B17 Flying Fortress bombers flew over to continue the attack. By that time Dresden was enclosed in a huge ash cloud which made it impossible for the aircraft to bomb selected targets. Many people on the ground suffocated from lack of oxygen or were cooked alive while tarred roads and people hiding in the bomb shelters melted under the massive heat which had been generated. The city continued to burn for two days and by the time the flames had dispersed 25 000 people had been killed.[13]

Debating the Effectiveness of the Aerial Bombing Campaign

This debate on the effectiveness and necessity of the bombing campaign has been raging ever since the war. On one side it is believed that the German economy was severely hindered by the campaign. Production of synthetic oil, chemicals and explosives was reduced while the railway and waterway transport systems also suffered.[14] Anthony Beever is of the opinion that the bombing created a second front against Germany which hampered the German position on the Eastern Front. A large number of 88mm anti-aircraft guns that would have played an important role against the Soviet forces had to be stationed strategically around Germany to defend against the bombing raids. The Luftwaffe was also required to relocate squadrons of aircraft that would have proved valuable on the Eastern Front.[15]

On the other side, historians such as Richard Overy argue that the bombing offensive never achieved its aims. Overy believes that the campaign did not create the desired negative effect on the German war economy or the morale of the local population. This is much in the same manner that the German Blitz of 1940 and 1941 failed to halt the British war effort or the determination of the British people. He claims that the RAF should rather have made a more substantial contribution to assist in halting the German U-boat offensive in the Atlantic Ocean.[16]

It is also believed by people such as Fuller and Liddel-Hart that nothing was gained by the killing of so many civilians for a cost of 55 000 aircrew. The German workers endured the bombing on an increasing scale and continued to work in the factories, many of which had been constructed away from the city centres where the bombing was concentrated. In addition, public support for Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Government did not diminish in the manner that had been expected.[17]

The argument also highlights a fact that the bombs delivered on the United Kingdom during the Blitz were a mere five per cent of the tonnage dropped on Germany by Bomber Command. In reality more bombs were dropped on Berlin in 1944 and 1945 than all those that fell on the United Kingdom during the entire period of the war.[18]


G Long: Astcomfischer Platz, Berlin (DNMMH Acq 25354)
Illustrating the Effects of Area Bombing

The series of paintings under discussion was Long’s last assignment of the war and was the first comprehensive exposure of the devastation wrought by the Allies on Germany. The depiction of buildings and infrastructure in total ruin is clearly tangible and the scenes are captured in energetic, fascinating strokes.

In most case the buildings illustrated, a proportion of which would have been designed in previous centuries, are depicted as mere gaunt skeletons. In the sketch of Cologne (acq No 15393), the cathedral appears to stand alone, defiant over the desolation that surrounds it.

The subject matter also includes local citizens passing by the debris, all attempting to go about their daily lives despite the circumstances. Two of the paintings illustrate people searching through the wreckage. Some were probably trying to locate items that had belonged to them while others were searching for anything they could use to help rebuild their lives.[19]

It is reasonable to say that Long was moved by what he experienced in Germany. Previously during the war when he was stationed in the Mediterranean, Long registered 27 operational hours in bombing missions with both the RAF and USAAF over targets which included Benghazi, Sicily and Greece. His thoughts on those bombing missions after experiencing the effects of the destruction in Germany at first hand would probably have been interesting to read.[20]

Conclusion

The area bombing campaign against Germany in the Second World War was a case of total war in its extremity and the effectiveness and moral issues are still disputed today. West Germany was able to recover swiftly and re-build its cities in the years following the war as a result of loans received through the European Recovery Programme or Marshal Plan. However, until recently, it is doubtful whether people have fully understood the horror that German civilians were forced to endure. Many of the grim images and explicit accounts of people on the ground had been classified until the advent of the internet forced such information into the public domain. Geoffrey Long’s works of art produced during his visit to Germany in 1945 are an important record as the series represents a first serious attempt to document the consequences of area bombing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources Consulted

Archival Sources

Document Ref AG (1) (L) p.1/2050Document Ref AG (1) (L) p.1/20504/1 in File 920. Long Geoffrey Kellet (Archives of the Ditsong National Museum of Military History)

Document produced by Maj R N Lindsay, SA Public relations, Central Mediterranean, 1944 in File 920. Long Geoffrey Kellet (Archives of the Ditsong National Museum of Military History)

Published Sources

Frankland, N “The Bombing of Germany” in History of the 20th Century (Chapter 71)

Frankland, N “Bombing, The RAF Case” in Purnell’s History of the Second World War Vol 6

Huntingford, N P C, The Official World War II works of Geoffrey Long (Johannesburg, DNMMH, 1986)

 

Academic Sources

 

Rahder, K H The RAF Bombing Campaign in German: Ethical and Strategic Considerations (Master’s Thesis, Committee on International Relations, University of Chicago) November 1988

Rigole, J The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany in World War II (LSU Master’s Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College) 2002

 

Video Sources

 

Netflix series, Greatest Events of World War II in Colour, 2019, Episode 8 “Dresden Firestorm”

You Tube Video, The Allied Bombing of German Cities in World War II was Unjustifiable, Intelligence Squared, 25 October 2012.

You Tube Video, The World at War, (Thames Television, 1973), Episode 12 “Whirlwind, Bombing of Germany”,

 

The above videos were accessed on 14 August 2020.

 

Internet Sources

 

https://humanities.exeter.ac.uk/history/research/centres/warstateandsociety/projects/bombing/germany/

https://www.history.com/news/world-war-ii-allied-bombings-shockwaves-space

http://www.revisionist.net/bombing-germany.html

http://ww2today.com/5th-march-1943-the-battle-of-the-ruhr-begins-with-essen

http://www.revisionist.net/dortmund.html

https://za.pinterest.com/pin/427490189610729267/

https://www.history.co.uk/history-of-ww2/the-bombing-offensive

 

The above internet sources were accessed on 22 May 2020.

 

[1] . J Rigole, The Strategic Bombing Campaign in World War II, p 78.

[2] . Internet source, www.history.com/news/world-war-ii-allied-bombings-shockwaves-space.

[3] . Document Ref AG (1) (L) p.1/20504/1.

[4] . N P C Huntingford, The Official World War II works of Geoffrey Long, Introduction.

[5] . K F Rahder, The RAF bombing campaign: Ethical and strategic considerations, p 8.

[6] . You tube documentary, The Allied bombing of German cities in World War II was unjustifiable.

[7] . You tube documentary, The Allied bombing of German cities…..

[8] . Internet source, www.revisionist.net/bombing-germany.html.

[9] . K F Rahder, pp 24, 27.

[10] . N Frankland, “Bombing the RAF Case”in Purnell’s History of the Second World War Vol 5, p 2272.

[11] . J Rigole, p 24.

[12] . Internet source, www.revisionist.net/bombing-germany.html.

[13] . Netflix Series, Greatest Events of World War II: Episode 8 “Dresden Firestorm”.

[14] . J Rigole, p 59.

[15] . You tube documentary, The Allied bombing of German cities…..

[16] . You tube documentary, The Allied bombing of German cities…..

[17] . K F Rahder, p 68; Internet source, www.history.co.uk/history-of-ww2/the-bombing-offensive.

[18] . Internet source, www.revisionist.net/bombing-germany.html.

[19] . N P C Huntingford, Nos 107 – 115.

[20] . Document produced by Maj R N Lindsay, SA Public relations, Central Mediterranean, 1944.

EVOLUTION IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS: ACCEPTED, TOLERATED OR REJECTED?

EVOLUTION IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS: ACCEPTED, TOLERATED OR REJECTED?

Dr Mirriam Tawane, Curator Palaeontology, DITSONG: National Museum of Natural History

Evolution became part of the national school curricula in 2008, taught at grade 12 level. Although it would have been a new topic to grade 12s, some aspects of evolution have been part of the grade 7-9 Natural Sciences/Social Sciences curricula since 2004. Although evolution is not an entirely new topic in South African high schools, it did not seem to generate much concerns or controversy among teachers or parents until such a time that it became externally examinable. It was only in 2008 when it was included as part of an externally examinable curriculum, where it made up 25% of the final matriculation examination, that concerns about lack of knowledge and beliefs started to emerge.

The following are some of the quotes that indicate the depth of concerns regarding evolution as a subject matter in South African schools. “I cannot see why it should be introduced at school. It will cause confusion”; “because it is not suitable for people who believe in God”; “evolution is a racist theory”; “it terribly undermines black people, everything bad gets a black colour. It means that we are apes” (Mail and Guardian, 2007).

Irrespective of whether teachers are creationists or not, they might not teach evolution effectively. This could be because they do not want to undermine the values and beliefs of the learners and parents.

In addition to these concerns from the public, teachers and scholars face challenges relating to the subject, such as  teachers’ inadequate background knowledge, inadequacy of teacher training by the Department of Education, and teachers with strong religious beliefs.

  1. Teachers’ inadequate background knowledge

Teachers often lack extensive knowledge regarding evolution. They face their own concerns regarding the subject. Teachers grapple with concerns such as:

  1. a) What to teach learners;
  2. b) At what depth to teach it;
  3. c) What would be assessed; and
  4. d) Where to start.

These concerns usually contribute to teachers to be less confident in teaching the subject. Most teachers have never studied evolution themselves, and do not understand the subject. One teacher was quoted saying “I am scared to teach something I am not sure of. I have never done evolution at school even in college training” (Ngxola, 2012).

  1. Inadequacy of teacher training by the Department of Education

Lack of resources such as textbooks and teaching aids for both teachers and scholars, as well as the misconceptions surrounding the subject, add to the challenges of the subject being accepted in schools. Teacher training regarding evolution seems hardly co-ordinated or sustained over time. Long term in-service training is required, as compared to once-off training events. Too much information is usually provided as hands-outs for self-study. This means that teachers are left on their own to study these materials, and try to grasp it on their own. For a complex subject like evolution, more extensive training is required for teachers to guarantee their understanding of the concept.

  1. Teachers with strong religious beliefs

Teachers’ personal views on a topic or subject matter will heavily influence or determine how the topic is treated in the classroom. Scott (1999:8) indicates that a “teacher who does not accept evolution is unlikely to teach it, or will mislead students”. Presenting evolution workshops in Taung in 2016, I realised how teachers are conflicted between executing their duties as teachers, teaching evolution and observing their religious beliefs and practices.

Current status of affairs

Many teachers have started to admit their limitations and request help, although the training of teachers still needs to be prioritised by the Department of Basic Education. Subjects such as Palaeontology, Archaeology and Anthropology are still not presented extensively as career opportunities to scholars in South Africa. These subjects, especially Palaeontology and Anthropology are evolution oriented, and have the potential to change the current status of affairs regarding evolution in the country. There are still misconceptions at schools and the general public regarding evolution. These are mostly fuelled by lack of knowledge about the subject. Addressing these requires a joint effort from all stakeholders involved; these being museums curating natural sciences collections, institutions of higher learning, the Department of Basic Education and the general public at large.

Figure 1: Depiction of a possible scenario in the South African education system.

The picture in Figure 1 could easily be compared to the South African educational system in a way that there is no adequate distribution of resources to schools across the country. The question is, how do we assist all learners to climb the tree? In the case of evolution, how do we do away with misunderstandings and misconceptions, and introduce it to learners as a science concept, with scientific evidence to support it? Figures 2-7 depict some of the ways in which museums and higher education institutions can play a role in educating and demonstrating scientific evidence to support evolution teachings in South African schools.

Figure 2: A local school attending the announcement of Homo naledi at Maropeng a Afrika.

Figure 3: Evolution lecture presented in the Broom room at DITSONG: National Museum of Natural History.

Figure 4: Evolution workshop presented at a school in Taung, North West Province.

Figure 5: Evolution workshop presented at a school in Taung, North West Province.

Figure 6: Evolution workshop presented at a school in Taung, North West Province.

Figure 7: Evolution workshop presented at a school in Taung, North West Province.

References

Ngxola, N. 2012. Teaching evolution in a new curriculum: Life Sciences teachers’ concerns and needs. A research report submitted to the Faculty of Science in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.

Scott, E.C. (1999) Problem concepts in evolution: cause, purpose, design, and chance. The evolution–creation controversy II: perspectives on science, religion, and geological education. Paleontological Society   Papers. 5, 169–181.

Mohlala. T. Religious backlash expected as evolution forms part of curriculum. Mail and Guardian. 26 October 2007.

 

DOLOMITE: THE ROCK THAT SHAPES THE CRADLE OF HUMANKIND

DOLOMITE: THE ROCK THAT SHAPES THE CRADLE OF HUMANKIND

Lazarus Kgasi: DITSONG: National Museum of Natural History.

A strip of dolomitic limestone caves containing the fossilized remains of ancient types of animals, plants and, most notably, hominids, covers the Cradle of Humankind Site. Approximately 2.3 billion years ago, the dolomite in which the caves were formed began as coral reefs developing in a worm-shallow sea. The discovery of these fossils has helped in the understanding of human evolution, geology, and how the past environments shaped what we see today.

Shallow inland seas were formed on our continent crust 3 billion years ago and the Cradle of Humankind was part of a large inland sea that stretched as far as the equator.  Ocean and seawater are rich in calcium carbonate and these are the chemicals that form dolomite. It was formed when carbonates of calcium and magnesium precipitated out of seawater as chemical sediments in the shallow ocean that covered much of South Africa at the time. As water chemistry changed periodically, layers of chert (silicon dioxide) were formed within dolomite. Chert (rock) is important because it is insoluble in slightly acidic ground water or rain water.  When present as a thick layer, it tends to form a roof over caves; the collapse of such roofs creates vertical openings.

Exposed dolomite in the Cradle of Humankind has captured and preserved some of the elements of inland sea; ripple marks of ancient sea waves’ movement can be seen. These phenomenal geological processes assist us in understanding how caves are formed and what caused mountain ranges to rise to great heights, continents to drift apart, volcanoes to erupt and inland sea to dry up.  There are two types of dolomites in the Cradle of Humankind; there are 2.3-2.5 billion years old Eccles formation and 2.6-2.8 billion Monte Cristo formation.

Figure 1. Photo showing dolomite from one of the sites around the Cradle.

One of the ways researchers have identified areas in the dolomites where there may be caves or sink holes is to look for the occurrence of lime-loving trees such as the Wild Olive (Olea capensis) and White Stinkwood (Celtis africana).  Most of the time they mark the top of an underground cavity into which their roots grow. Most White Stinkwood trees were used in the 20th century as fuel for lime furnaces, so only their stumps remain as clues to where potentially fossil rich caves are.